Monthly Archives: January 2019

What is The Role of Diet and Exercise in PCOD?

Role of diet and exercise in PCOS

Role of Diet and Exercise in PCOD

PCOD is caused in women due to hormonal balance. But the change in lifestyles can largely help in dealing with PCOS.

Most PCOD patients are overweight and are advised to exercise regularly, which helps to control the symptoms.

Diet and exercise are two of the main ways with which symptoms can be managed. With the right diet and adequate exercise, a few women have reported remarkable improvement.

Role of Exercise:-

Women with PCOS do struggle with weight loss, but a proper exercise plan can surely help in the long run.

One of the main ways that exercise seems to help PCOS is the way in which it helps to manage glucose and insulin. Exercise causes glucose to be taken from the blood and moved into the muscles, lowering the need for insulin at that time and improving the body’s sensitivity to insulin. This, in turn, will lower the risk for diabetes and other complications.
Women with PCOS tend to have high cholesterol and triglycerides, which can contribute to other complications like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart diseases. Exercising can help reduce your cholesterol when combined with a healthy, low-fat diet.
Depression is commonly seen in women suffering from PCOS.

While exercising, the body releases endorphins, which are hormones that promote feelings of wellness. This can help manage stress and alleviate some symptoms of depression.

Women with PCOS are more likely to have problems with sleep apnea, snoring and even insomnia. Exercising regularly can help fall asleep quicker and have a better quality sleep.

Role of Diet:-

Low carb diet- A diet high in refined carbohydrates, such as starchy and sugary foods, can make insulin resistance, and therefore weight loss, more difficult to control.

High-fiber foods- can help combat insulin resistance by slowing down digestion and reducing the impact of sugar on the blood. They include cauliflowers, broccoli, beans, lentils, almonds, Brussel sprouts, sweet potatoes, berries etc

Include more of fruits and vegetables in the diet and avoid dairy-based products because dairy-based products can increase insulin levels which can aggravate acne and other symptoms.
Avoid saturated or hydrogenated fats. Saturated fats can really raise your cholesterol and add calories. For example, lamb, pork, beef, cheese etc

Include foods with low glycemic indexes such as that made from whole wheat, wheat flour, and whole grain. Examples are brown rice and wheat pasta

For detailed information on the role of diet and exercise on relieving the symptoms of PCOS, consult our gynecologist at CMC, Mohali. Dr. Navdeep Kaur is without any doubt one of the best gynecologist in Mohali.

 

Your Broken Bone May Not Heal! What Are Nonunion Fractures!

Broken Bone

After your bone has been fractured, it might be possible that it fails to heal. This is known as Non-union.

What causes a non-union?

For your bone to heal, it needs an adequate blood supply, proper stability, and good nutrition. Lack of any of these factors makes a fractured bone prone to form a non-union.

What are the risk factors involved?

Certain factors like smoking, severe anemia, old age, hypothyroidism, low levels of vitamin D, poor nutrition, diabetes, infection, drugs like aspirin, ibuprofen may increase the risk of non-union.

Symptoms of a non-union

You may feel a constant pain at the site of the break long after the initial pain of the fracture has disappeared. This pain may last months or even years.

Diagnosis

A nonunion may be diagnosed if the doctor finds one or more of the following in the imaging studies:

  • Persistent pain at the fracture site
  • A persistent gap with no bone spanning the fracture site
  • No progress in bone healing when repeated imaging studies are compared over several months
  • Inadequate healing in a time period that is usually enough for normal healing

If your doctor diagnoses a nonunion, he or she may order blood tests to investigate the cause. These tests may show infection or another medical condition that may slow bone healing, such as anemia or diabetes.

How can nonunion be treated?

The treatment of a nonunion depends on the cause of the problem. Our specialist at CMC is renowned for his proficiency in the field.

Visit Mohali’s best orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Ravinder Puri, to get yourself treated in the best hands.

Treatment may involve surgery to remove the infection, to better stabilize the fracture, or to stimulate bone growth with bone graft. If the cause is a lack of good stabilization, you may need internal fixation with metal plates, rods, and screws. External fixation with a rigid frame is used for some nonunions. Bone grafts may use your own bone tissue.

Nonsurgical treatment might use a bone stimulator device that is used daily with ultrasonic or electromagnetic waves.

Also Read:  What are the options for Osteoarthritis of the knee in younger age group i.e. Osteoarthritis in active male less than 50 yrs of age?

 

Does Your Child Have Recurrent Throat Pain?

Throat Pain

Adenoids are a mass of soft tissue located at the back of the throat, right above the tonsils. Both adenoids and tonsils are part of the immune system, which helps to prevent and fight infection in your body.

Tonsils are easily visible, unlike the adenoids which aren’t directly visible. The adenoids can cause problems if they become enlarged. Fortunately, they’re not an essential part of the immune system, and they can generally be treated by removing them.

When the tonsils become infected, the condition is called tonsillitis. Tonsillitis can be caused by a virus, such as the common cold, or by a bacterial infection, such as strep throat. Adenoids usually become enlarged when infected, but return to their normal size when the infection subsides. However, in some instances, the adenoids remain enlarged even after the infection is gone.

If your child has been having frequent tonsil infections, the doctor might remove the tonsils as well. The tonsils and adenoids are often removed at the same time. This is because repeated infections can lead to sinus and ear infections. Badly swollen adenoids can also lead to infections or middle ear fluid, which can temporarily cause hearing loss.

 

What Are the Symptoms of Adenotonsillitis?

Symptoms of tonsillitis may include:

  • Swelling of the tonsils
  • Redder than normal tonsils
  • A white or yellow coating on the tonsils
  • A slight change in the voice due to swelling
  • A sore throat sometimes accompanied by ear pain
  • Uncomfortable or painful swallowing
  • Swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the neck
  • Fever
  • Bad breath

If your child’s tonsils or adenoids are enlarged, it may be hard to breathe through the nose or cause difficulty while sleeping.

Other signs of adenoid and/or tonsil enlargement include:

Breathing through the mouth instead of the nose most of the time
Nose sounds “blocked” when the person speaks

  • A chronic runny nose
  • Noisy breathing during the day
  • Recurrent ear infections
  • Snoring at night

Restlessness during sleep, or pauses in breathing for a few seconds at night (this may indicate sleep apnea or other sleeping disorder)

Along with these symptoms, your child may suffer from facial deformity known as an adenoid face. The facial features include:

  • Open mouth and mouth breathing
  • Pinched nostrils
  • Crowded teeth and hyperplasia of gums
  • Loss of nasolabial fold
  • Underslung mandible
  • High arched V-shaped palate
  • Short upper lips
  • Hypoplasia of maxilla
  • Vacant expression
  • Round shoulders
  • Voice changes- nasal and lifeless

Visit our ENT (ear, nose, and throat) specialist at CMC when your child experiences the common symptoms of infected or enlarged tonsils or adenoids.

What are treatment options?

Treatment depends on how severe the condition is. If your child’s enlarged adenoids aren’t infected, the doctor may not recommend surgery. Instead, the doctor may choose to simply wait and see if the adenoids shrink on their own as your child gets older.

In other cases, your doctor may recommend medication, such as a nasal steroid, to shrink enlarged adenoids. However, it’s common for enlarged adenoids to be removed if they continue to cause problems despite treatment with medications. This surgery is called an adenoidectomy.

Are your nasal allergies troubling you?

nasal allergies

If you have nasal congestion along with thick nasal discharge and decreased sensation to smell, you may have rhinosinusitis, commonly referred to as sinusitis.

Filled with mucus, your sinuses are hollow cavities within your cheekbones, around your eyes, and behind your nose. Mucus helps to warm, moisten and filter the air you breathe.

Inflammation of sinuses may occur if there is a blockage in the mucus drainage due to infection, allergies, and chemical or particulate irritation of the sinuses. Post nasal drip, mucus overproduction from sinusitis that flows to the throat and irritates throat tissue, can be seen.

 

What are the various types of Sinusitis?

Acute Sinusitis

When sinusitis symptoms last less than four weeks, it is referred to as an acute sinusitis. Most cases begin as a common cold. Symptoms often go away within a week to 10 days.

Chronic Sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis, also referred to as chronic rhinosinusitis, is often diagnosed when symptoms have gone on for more than 12 weeks, despite medical treatment.

Allergic Sinusitis

Allergies cause chronic inflammation of the sinus and mucus linings, which may prevent the usual clearance of bacteria from the sinus cavity and hence may increase the chances of developing secondary bacterial sinusitis.

Seasonal Sinusitis

Pollens are seasonal allergens. Inflammation in the sinuses caused only during a particular season due to specific allergens is known as seasonal sinusitis.

Perennial Sinusitis

Molds, dust mites, and pet dander can cause symptoms year-round. The type of sinus inflammation caused by these allergens is referred to as Perennial sinusitis.

Infected sinusitis

Stagnated mucus provides an environment for bacteria, viruses and fungus, to grow within the sinus cavities. In addition, the microbes themselves can initiate and exacerbate sinus blockage, and may cause infected sinusitis.

Noninfectious sinusitis

Irritants and allergies cause non-infectious sinusitis.

 

What can be done to treat these nasal allergies?

  • Acute sinus bacterial infection usually is treated with antibiotics aimed at treating the most common bacteria known to cause sinus infection.
  • In allergic sinusitis, treating allergies with shots or reducing and avoiding exposure to allergens like animal dander or mold can lessen the occurrence of chronic sinusitis.
  • Early treatment of allergic sinusitis may prevent secondary bacterial sinus infections.
  • The treatment of chronic forms of sinus infection requires longer courses of medications, such as Augmentin, and may require a sinus drainage procedure.
  • A topical nasal steroid spray will help reduce swelling in the allergic individual
  • Structural issues, such as a deviated septum, may need surgery. Surgery may also be advised if there are polyps, or if the sinusitis has resisted all other treatments.
  • Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is the main procedure used for treatment, but other surgeries may be required as other parts of the nose are often affected.

 

Suffering from Sore Throat, Fever and Chills..? It could be Swine flu!

Sore Throat

Yes, signs and symptoms of swine flu are quite similar to that of the regular flu. So it’s quite possible that if you have a cough, sore throat, high-grade fever (>102), fatigue, headache, muscle ache lasting for a week, it can be Swine flu. However, people with weakened immune systems and children may be contagious for a longer period of time (for example, about 10 to 14 days). Sometimes it is accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting, and rash. You may even develop respiratory symptoms such as shortness of breath. Severe persisting viral infection may lead to death with pneumonia or seizures as a secondary cause for death.

What causes Swine flu?

Swine flu is a respiratory disease caused by influenza virus in pigs. The disease is spread among pigs by direct and indirect contact, aerosols, and from pigs that are infected but do not have symptoms.
Most commonly, swine flu is of the H1N1 influenza subtype.
Humans get infected with swine flu when they come in contact with an infected pig. Transmission of infection is also possible when you come in close contact with an infected human.

What are the risk factors for swine flu?

People aged over 65 years, children under 5 years, people with chronic diseases, pregnant women, teenagers receiving long-term aspirin therapy and anyone with a compromised immune system is at higher risk of catching the infection.

Swine Flu can be treated

A vaccine against the H1N1 strain of swine flu has been introduced.
Flu shots, nasal sprays are of great help to subside the symptoms of the flu. The most used antiviral drugs are zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu), both of which are also used to prevent or reduce influenza A and B symptoms.

Is the prevention possible?

Yes of course. Refrain from contacting the infected person directly. Avoid shaking hands. Covering the mouth while coughing or sneezing is recommended for the infected person.

What are Preterm Deliveries?

Preterm Deliveries

Normally a baby is born at 40 weeks of pregnancy. If a baby is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy, it is known as preterm or premature delivery. Health issues can be more severe and long-lasting, depending on how early the delivery occurs.

What are the various types of Preterm Deliveries?

A preterm delivery can be planned premature delivery and Spontaneous premature delivery.
If the pregnancy poses danger and difficulty, you may choose to induce labor early or perform a C- section before the full term of pregnancy. This is known as planned preterm delivery.

If some unexpected issues happen in the course of the pregnancy arise suddenly. This is known as spontaneous premature delivery. Conditions such as the premature rupture of the membrane resulting in amniotic fluid leakage, premature uterine contractions, cervical insufficiency, etc. fall into this category.

What Are The Signs and Symptoms Of A Premature Delivery?

Contractions every 10 minutes or more often, change in vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding or even spotting, lower backache, menstrual like cramps in lower abdomen, feeling pressure in the pelvic area, water breaking, diarrhea can be an indication of preterm delivery
Seek medical care if any of the above symptoms appear before the 37th week of pregnancy.

How is preterm labor diagnosed?

Your obstetrician may perform a pelvic exam to see if your cervix has started to change. She will monitor your contractions. She may perform a transvaginal ultrasound exam to measure the length of your cervix. The level of a protein called fetal fibronectin in the vaginal discharge may also be measured.

What are risk factors for preterm birth?

Certain factors may pose to be risk factors for premature birth. They may include having a previous preterm birth, having a short cervix, short interval between pregnancies, history of certain types of surgery on the uterus or cervix, certain pregnancy complications, such as multiple pregnancy and vaginal bleeding, lifestyle factors such as low pre-pregnancy weight, smoking during pregnancy, and substance abuse during pregnancy.

Why is preterm birth a concern?

Preterm birth is a concern because babies who are born too early may not be fully developed. They may be born with serious health problems like cerebral palsy, learning disabilities, autism, lung problems, vision, and hearing loss. Cerebral palsy may last a lifetime.

Can Premature Delivery Be Delayed?

The primary goal of the treatment of preterm labor is to delay the delivery as long as possible. The treatment involves medicines to stop contraction and relax the uterine muscle, to speed up the development of the fetal lungs. Intravenous fluids are induced for better hydration. Strict and complete bed rest is recommended.

Transfer the mother to a hospital offering facility NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) for proper care of the premature baby. Babies born before 7 months need specialized care in the hospital’s neonatal intensive care unit (NICU.) We at CMC provide you with NICU along with a proficient gynecologist in Mohali, Dr. Navdeep Kaur. Visit CMC to get the diagnosis of your preterm delivery well in time.

What if I had a Heart attack?

Heart attack

There are clear symptoms of a heart attack that require immediate medical attention.

A feeling of pressure, tightness, pain, crushing, squeezing, or aching in the chest or arms. The pain spreads to the neck, jaw, or back can be a sign that you’re having a heart attack.

The following are other possible signs and symptoms of a heart attack occurring:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • crushing chest pain
  • epigastric pain
  • dizziness
  • difficulty in breathing
  • a feeling of terror that life is ending
  • feeling awful, generally
  • restlessness
  • feeling clammy and sweaty

Changing position does not alleviate the pain of a heart attack. The pain you feel is normally constant, although it may sometimes come and go.

WHAT TO DO??

In case of chest discomfort do not hesitate to seek medical attention.

RECOMMENDED TESTS

  • ECG
  • ECHO
  • SERUM CARDIAC ENZYMES LIKE TRPONIN I/CPK-MB

TREATMENT

After the diagnosis of STEMI is established then it is recommended to go for urgent Coronary Angiography followed by Angioplasty as early treatment wil help save the dying heart muscle.

We at Cheema Medical Complex have 24 hour emergency cardiac backup along with the facility of state of the art Cardiac Catheterization Lab where treatment of Heart Attack can be promptly initiated.

Did your fractured bone twist or shorten after healing? What are Malunion fractures?

fractured bone

Malunion is defined as a healing of the bones in an abnormal position. After a bone is broken (fractured), the body starts the healing process. If the two ends of your broken bone are not lined up properly, it can heal with a deformity. It may result in a shorter than normal, twisted or rotated in a bad position, or bent bone.

What are the symptoms of malunion?

Depending on the severity, you may feel swelling, pain, discomfort, tenderness, and difficulty in moving or carrying weight in the fractured area.

Not all malunions require treatment!

You might not need a surgical treatment if your malunion has not caused any impaired functioning. But if the altered bone positioning is significant and damaging, it may require surgical treatment.

After proper diagnosis, an orthopedic surgeon will perform osteotomy to shorten, lengthen or realign the fractured bone.

Visit and consult our orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Ravinder Puri at CMC for proper diagnosis and treatment of your malunion.

 

What are the options for Osteoarthritis of knee in younger age group i.e. Osteoarthritis in active male less than 50 yrs of age?

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) means inflammation (itis) of the joint (arthro) and bones (osteo).

Classification of OA in young adults

There are two main classifications of OA

1. Primary osteoarthritis: is the form where you don’t know what could have triggered the disease, inferring history or clinical/radiographic examination.
2. Secondary osteoarthritis: can be caused by trauma, metabolic disease, congenital malformations, etc

Physical Therapy Management

Physical therapy for young people suffering from osteoarthritis is still a discovery. The following physiotherapy techniques are a valuable therapeutic adjuvant for the treatment of osteoarthritis symptoms.

Muscle relaxing action

  • Hot or cold application on osteoarthritic joint
  • Proprioceptive reeducation
  • TEN
  • Traction
  • The range of motion exercises
  • Strengthening exercises
  • Stretching exercises

Massage: Following KNGF-guidelines message has lost its place to exercises, which should be the cornerstones in all therapy for OA.

  •  Hydrotherapy and Spa Treatment

Medical Management

For the young patient, there is a special technique which focuses on the level of activity after surgery. Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation is used for joint preservation. The chondrocytes are said to produce hyaline-like repair tissue. This procedure reduces symptoms and increases functions.

Furthermore, more and more young patients are undergoing a total arthroplasty of the knee. Osteotomy can be a choice of treatment to relieve the pain of arthritis, especially of the knee, whereby a bone is cut to shorten or lengthen it or to change its alignment.

Does Every Knee Pain Require Surgical Intervention?

Surgical Intervention

What is knee pain?

Knee pain can originate in any of the bony structures compromising the knee joint (femur, tibia, fibula), the kneecap (patella), or the ligaments and cartilage (meniscus) of the knee.

How does knee pain aggravate?

Knee pain can be aggravated by physical activity, as well as obesity, affected by the surrounding muscles and their movements, and be triggered by other problems (such as a foot injury). Knee pain can affect people of all ages.

What are the signs and symptoms of knee pain?

The location of the knee pain can vary depending on which structure is involved. With infection or an inflammatory process, the whole knee might be swollen and painful. A torn meniscus or fracture of a bone gives symptoms only in one specific location.

The severity of the joint pain varies, from a minor ache to a severe and disabling pain.

Some of the signs and symptoms that accompany knee pain are

  • Difficulty weight bearing or walking due to instability of the knee,
  • limping due to discomfort,
  • Difficulty walking up or down steps due to ligament damage,
  • Locking of the knee (unable to bend the knee),
  • Redness and swelling,
  • Inability to extend the knee

What are the causes of knee pain?

Knee pain can be divided into following categories:

  • Acute injury: knee injury such as a broken bone, torn ligament, or meniscal tear
  • Medical conditions: rheumatoid arthristis, osteoarthritis, infections
  • Chronic use/overuse conditions: osteoarthritis , chondromalacia, patellar syndromes, tendinitis

What is the treatment for a knee pain?

Many patients can be managed with the help of medicines, physical therapy or injections depending on the severity of pain.

Not every knee pain requires a surgical intervention!

In patients with advanced conditions, like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, bone deformities, injuries etc., there is extreme knee pain, knee swelling, and inability of movement at the knee joint and knee ligaments. In such patients, knee replacement surgery, also called knee arthroplasty, is suggested.

An expert in his field, Dr Ravinder Puri, a skilled and eminent orthopaedic surgeon at CMC can provide you with best treatment for your knee pain. With an affordable knee replacement surgery cost, and high standards of treatment services, refer to our knee specialist at CMC.


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