Monthly Archives: March 2019

What Causes Hearing Loss in Elderly?

Hearing Loss

Aging alters multiple functions in your body. Hearing loss can be one of them. Age-related hearing loss, also known as presbycusis, is commonly seen in older adults. Studies show approximately 1-2 adults over the age of 65 have hearing loss and half of those over the age of 75 experience difficulty in hearing.

Hearing loss happens when there is a decrease in the perception of sound. It can be partial or total, sudden or gradual, temporary or permanent, affecting one or both the ears.

Causes of age-related hearing loss

Age-related hearing loss occurs gradually over time. The main cause can be various changes in the inner ear, including:

  • Changes in the structures of the inner ear
  • Changes in blood flow to the ear
  • Impairment in the nerves responsible for hearing
  • Changes in the way that the brain processes speech and sound
  • Damage to the tiny hairs in the ear that are responsible for transmitting sound to the brain

Following conditions or disorders can also be responsible for Age-related hearing loss:

  • Diabetes
  • Poor circulation
  • Exposure to loud noises
  • Certain medications
  • The family history of hearing loss
  • Smoking

Symptoms of age-related hearing loss

  • Inability to hear high-pitched sounds (voices of females or children)
  • Certain sounds seeming overly loud
  • Difficulty hearing in areas that are noisy
  • Difficulty hearing the difference between “s” and “th” sounds
  • Ringing in the ears(tinnitus)
  • Turning up the volume on the television or radio louder than normal
  • Asking people to repeat themselves
  • Being unable to understand conversations over the telephone
  • Discharge or bleeding from the ear
  • Deep earache, or pain in the ear canal
  • Pressure or a “stuffy” feeling inside the ears
  • Dizziness or problems with balance or equilibrium
  • Nausea

The doctor needs to be notified of any of these symptoms. Sometimes hearing problems can be serious. Seek professional advice as soon as possible.
Visit an ear specialist to get the right diagnosis and treatment. An otolaryngologist will try to find out why you’re having trouble hearing and offer treatment options. An audiologist will identify and measure the type and degree of hearing loss. A hearing aid specialist evaluates basic hearing tests, offer counseling, and fit and test hearing aids.


Age-related hearing loss is a get s worse with time. As such, there is no cure for age-related hearing loss. However, using the following assistive devices can improve the hearing ability:

Hearing aids

  • Assistive devices, such as telephone amplifiers
  • Lessons in sign language or lip reading (for severe hearing loss)

In people who are severely hard of hearing, the doctor may recommend a cochlear implant which is surgically implanted into the ear to make sounds somewhat louder.

Visit our ENT specialist (otolaryngologist), Dr. Mohit Bhutani, at CMC for consultation regarding hearing loss.

Are You Suffering From Anaemia During Pregnancy?

Anaemia During Pregnancy

Half of India’s pregnant women are anemic, wherein Iron deficiency affects one in five of the world’s population and is the most prevalent cause of anemia in pregnancy.

Anemia during pregnancy is a matter of serious concern and is common, especially in the second and third trimesters.

Causes of Anemia during Pregnancy:

When you’re pregnant, to support both you and your growing baby, your body produces more amount of blood than usual. The volume of blood in your body increases but there is a decrease in hemoglobin concentration. To compensate for the concentration of hemoglobin, more iron is required. Without sufficient iron stores, red-blood-cell production slows, along with their energy-boosting oxygen supply.

Less common causes of pregnancy-induced anemia can be vitamin deficiency (B12 or folic acid), blood loss, an underlying condition like kidney disease, an immune disorder or sickle cell anemia.

Anemia During Pregnancy is Associated With

  • Low birth weight
  • Premature birth
  • Maternal mortality

Symptoms of Anemia During Pregnancy

The most common symptoms of anemia during pregnancy are:

  • Pale skin, lips, and nails
  • Feeling tired or weak
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Headaches
  • A rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Numbness or a cold feeling in your hands and feet
  • A low body temperature
  • Pale skin
  • Chest pain
  • Irritability (due specifically to a B12 deficiency)

Initially, some of the symptoms would be the same as you might be facing during pregnancy even if you’re not anemic. So be sure to get routine blood tests to check for anemia.


Diagnostic test for anemia during pregnancy

If you feel any above symptoms, consult your doctor as soon as possible. Your doctor would perform a complete blood count (CBC), to evaluate the number of various cells that make up your blood.

If your red blood cell count is low, your doctor will diagnose you with anemia and may give you other blood tests to figure out the type of anemia you have. The CDC test is standard early in your pregnancy — usually at your first prenatal appointment, as part of your initial pregnancy blood test.


Treatment for Anaemia

If you are anemic during your pregnancy, your doctor would recommend you to make certain diet changes along with the intake of supplements. You will be asked to take an iron supplement and/or folic acid supplement in addition to your prenatal vitamins. Another blood test would be performed to assess any improvement in hemoglobin levels.

  • To treat vitamin B12 deficiency, your doctor may recommend that you take a vitamin B12 supplement along with some diet rich in folic acid and B12.
  • To prevent anemia during pregnancy, make sure you get enough iron. Eat well-balanced meals and add more foods that are high in iron to your diet.

Warning Signs of Heart Attack


A heart attack is caused by the death of heart muscle. Due to complete blockage of a coronary artery, one of the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle, there is a loss of blood supply.

Death of the heart muscle, in turn, causes chest pain. Heart attacks happen suddenly, but they normally result from long-standing heart disease.

Symptoms that may warn you that it’s a heart attack are:

  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Jaw pain
  • Sweating
  • Heartburn
  • Shortness of breath
  • Toothache
  • Headache
  • Nausea and vomiting.

A heart attack is a medical emergency. You should immediately seek medical treatment in case you feel any of the above symptoms.

We at CMC are well equipped for all kinds of emergencies. If you have a heart attack, we assure you to give the best treatment under the hands of our proficient cardiologist, Dr. Ruchir Rastogi.

Nose Surgery: Rhinoplasty (Nose Job) Overview

Nose Surgery

Rhinoplasty, also known as a nose job or nose reshaping, is surgery to repair or reshape the nose.

When can rhinoplasty be performed?

It can be done to:-

  • Reduce or increase the size of the nose
  • Change the shape of the tip or the nasal bridge
  • Narrow the opening of the nostrils
  • Nostrils that are large, wide or upturned
  • Change the angle between the nose and the upper lip
  • A nasal tip that is enlarged or bulbous, drooping, upturned or hooked
  • Correct a birth defect or injury
  • Help relieve some breathing problems

The surgery is performed under anesthesia either general or local depending on the type of surgery or the patient’s preference. It doesn’t take the surgeon more than an hour or so to complete the procedure.

There are no visible scars if the rhinoplasty is performed from inside the nose. If the procedure involves narrowing of flared nostrils, there may be small scars at the base of the nose that is not often visible.

The surgeon places splints outside the nose as well as inside the nostrils. They help in maintaining the shape of the nose as well as nasal septum post surgery.

The patients are usually allowed to go home on the same day as the surgery. It is normal for the nose and face to swell right after the surgery. The area may be painful too. Headaches are common to be noted. The nasal packing is usually removed in 3 to 5 days. The splint may be left in place for 1 to 2 weeks. Healing will take a few weeks.

We recommend you to visit our surgeon at CMC, Mohali to get rhinoplasty done under the best hands.

Adenoid Enlargement in Infants

Adenoid Enlargement

Adenoids are small patches of tissue located in the passage that connects the back of the nasal cavity to the throat but isn’t directly visible.
Adenoids grow until the child is between the age ranges of 3-5. When the child grows around 7 years of age, they tend to shrink.
Adenoids are part of the immune system, which helps to prevent and fight infection in your body. They produce antibodies to help your body fight off infections.

Adenoids trap bacteria and viruses entering through the nose and thus protect infants from infections.
Adenoids that become infected usually become enlarged, but return to their normal size when the infection subsides. However, in some instances, the adenoids remain enlarged even after the infection is gone.
Enlarged adenoids can also be caused by allergies. Some children have enlarged adenoids from birth.

Enlarged adenoids can cause a number of symptoms, including:

  • Blocked, stuffy nose
  • Ear problems
  • Snoring
  • Sore throat
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Swollen glands in the neck
  • Problems breathing through the nose
  • fluid buildup in the middle ear, which can cause hearing problems
  • Cracked lips and dry mouth (from breathing problems)
  • Sleep apnoea (pauses in breathing during sleep)

Diagnostic exams and Tests

Due to their location, adenoids aren’t directly visible. Your doctor would use a special mirror in the mouth or insert a flexible tube (called an endoscope) through the nose for clear visibility and examination.
Tests may include:

  • X-ray of the throat or neck
  • Sleep study if your infant suffers from sleep apnoea


Few or no symptoms do not need treatment. The doctor may prescribe antibiotics or nasal steroid sprays if an infection develops. If the symptoms are severe or persistent, your doctor would recommend surgery to remove the adenoids (adenoidectomy)
After the adenoids are removed, your infant might experience:

  • A sore throat
  • Minor bleeding
  • Earaches
  • A blocked nose

Your child may also receive a mild pain reliever for the first few days. Any warm foods or drinks are to be avoided for the first seven days.
It’s common for children to have enlarged adenoids. Be sure to have your child examined as soon as possible if you notice that they are experiencing any of the symptoms of enlarged adenoids.

Consult our specialists at CMC, Mohali for the best diagnosis and treatment. Enlarged adenoids are surely a treatable condition.

What You Should Know About Reactive Arthritis

Reactive Arthritis

Reactive arthritis is a painful form of arthritis that occurs as a result of infection in some other part of the body.
Most affected organs are knees, the joints of your ankles and feet. Inflammation can be seen in eyes, skin, and urethra.

Causative agents can be bacteria present in the genitals or the bowel. Chlamydia is the bacteria found in the genitals. Though asymptomatic, it can be transmitted by sex, causing a pus-like or watery discharge from the genitals. The bacteria present in the bowel causes diarrhea. Arthritis within one month of either genital discharge or diarrhea is indicative of reactive arthritis.


Signs and Symptoms

The triad of the symptoms:

  • Inflammatory arthritis of large joints
  • Inflammation of the eyes in the form of conjunctivitis or uveitis
  • Urethritis in men or cervicitis in women.

Other signs and symptoms include:-

  • Extensive swelling of the toes or fingers, heels
  • Persistent low back pain with sacroiliac joint involvement, which tends to be worse at night or in the morning
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Patches of scaly skin on the palms, soles, trunk, or scalp
  • Increased frequency

Discomfort during urination
Pain from inflammation of the ligaments and tendons at the sites of their insertion into the bone (enthesitis)

Your doctor will make a diagnosis based on symptoms of the suggestive infections and severity of joint and muscle involvement. The diagnosis is indicative of reactive arthritis if the occurrence of arthritis collides with or shortly following inflammation of the eye and the urinary tract and lasts a month or longer.

There’s no specific test for reactive arthritis, but the following may be used to confirm a diagnosis or rule out other causes of the symptoms:

  • A stool sample or swabs were taken from your throat, penis or vagina, which can be tested for signs of inflammation or infection. Blood tests to check for levels of inflammation and sometimes to test for the HLA-B27 gene.
  • X-ray to see any abnormalities in joints

Medical treatments for reactive arthritis include:

  • Bacterial infections, such as chlamydia,can be treated with antibiotics.
  • Joint inflammation from reactive arthritis is usually treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as naproxen, aspirin, or ibuprofen.
  • Skin eruptions and eye inflammation can be treated with steroids.
  • Those with chronic disease may be prescribed other medications, including methotrexate.
  • Patients with chronic arthritis also may be referred to a physical therapist and may be advised to exercise regularly.

Laparoscopic Ovarian Cyst Removal

Ovarian Cyst Removal

Ovarian Cyst Removal

Ovarian cystectomy is a laparoscopic surgery which involves removal of cystic ovary while still preserving the ovary and retaining a women’s fertile.

An ovarian cyst may be a benign tumor. A typical benign tumor that appears with an ovary is a dermoid cyst. Dermoid cysts originate from primitive skin tissues which have been contained in the ovary from birth. The fluid inside is sebaceous material, as with a blackhead, and frequently contains hair.

Dermoid cysts are more common in young women, sometimes both in ovaries. Other cysts can be malignant tumors. These cancerous tumors tend to be more often seen in older women. They vary in dimensions but could be large, fifteen centimeters or more, before being detected.

Not in every case can be ovarian cyst removed with cystectomy. It is not recommended when:-

  • You are post-menopausal
  • Cancer is suspected
  • An ovarian cyst is very large(>3 inches)
  • Ovary is twisted

The laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy involves the procedure:

One or two tiny (1/4 inch) incisions are made at the belly button and on the far right or left side in the bikini line. One slightly larger (3/4 inch) incision is also made just above the pubic bone. The larger incision is used to remove the cyst.

Certain Laparoscopic Risks may include the rupture of an ovarian cyst which is possible with either laparoscopic or open surgical procedures, but studies indicate that rupture rates are higher in laparoscopy. In benign, or non-malignant (non-cancerous) cases, this is of no concern. If a cancerous mass does rupture, patients will require chemotherapy due to the spill of cancerous cells into the pelvis.
Laparoscopic Advantages over the open surgery –early recovery and decreased complications associated with open surgery. Women are discharged from the hospital the same day, with excellent pain control and rapid recovery.

Consult our specialist at CMC, Dr. Navdeep Kaur, who proves to be the best gynecologist in Mohali.

Is Laparoscopic Surgery Safe?

Laparoscopic Surgery Safe

Laparoscopic Surgery is Also Called Minimally Invasive Surgery

It is a newer and better way of performing surgery. After passing the laparoscope small incisions are made through which special instruments are passed an operation is carried out in a safe environment while looking at the screen.

It has the following benefits over open surgery:

  • The lesser amount of pain after the surgery and therefore requires less medication
  • Reduces the possibility of hemorrhage, thereby lowering the possibility of requiring a blood transfusion
  • he smaller length and depth of the incision
  • Patient recovery from the surgery is faster than usual
  • A lesser chance of contracting infections because a larger number of organs remain unexposed and therefore uncontaminated
  • Smaller, lighter scars once the surgical wound heals completely

Complications involved during laparoscopic surgeries, as any other surgery may involve:

  • Wound infection
  • Bruising
  • Hematomas
  • Anesthesia-related complications
  • Injury in bowel area or urinary tract

Your doctor prior to the surgery would test you for any anesthesia-related risks, limiting factors for pneumoperitoneum, and any coagulopathy disorders.

Our specialists at CMC ensure that you undergo the best treatment.

Visit CMC for any queries related to Laparoscopic surgery.

Also, Read Here: Advantages of Laparoscopic Uterus Removal Over Open One

Advantages of Laparoscopic Uterus Removal Over Open One

Laparoscopic Uterus Removal

Laparoscopic surgeries are much superior to open surgery. It becomes easier for the surgeon to perform a much finer & better quality of surgery as s/he gets a 20 times magnified & well-lit view as compared to open surgery.

Other benefits include:

  • Reduced blood loss during surgery
  • Reduced post-operative pain
  • Reduced infections
  • Faster recovery
  • minimal invasive surgery
  • cosmetically better as there are no big scars
  • Reduced hospital stay

In many of the cases, the patient is sent back home the same day.

Consult our Gynaecologist, Dr. Navdeep Kaur, at CMC for the best laparoscopic treatment.

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