Q1What is NICU?
Ans: A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)—also called a Special Care Nursery, newborn intensive care unit, intensive care nursery (ICN), and special care baby unit (SCBU)—is an intensive care unit specializing in the care of ill or premature newborn infants. A NICU is typically directed by one or more neonatologists and staffed by nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, assistants, resident physicians, and respiratory therapists.
Q2 What is incubator?
Ans: An incubator is an apparatus used to maintain environmental conditions suitable for a neonate (newborn baby). It is used in preterm births or for some ill full-term babies.
Q3 What are the functions of Incubator?
Ans: 1. Oxygenation, through oxygen supplementation by head hood or nasal cannula, or even continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mechanical ventilation. Infant respiratory distress syndrome is the leading cause of death in preterm infants and the main treatments are CPAP, in addition to administering surfactant and stabilizing the blood sugar, blood salts, and blood pressure.
2. Observation: Modern neonatal intensive care involves sophisticated measurement of temperature, respiration, cardiac function, oxygenation, and brain activity.
3. Protection from cold temperature, infection, noise, drafts and excess handling: Incubators may be described as bassinets enclosed in plastic, with climate control equipment designed to keep them warm and limit their exposure to germs.
4. Provision of nutrition, through intravenous catheter or NG tube.
5. Administration of medications.
6. Maintaining & fluid balance by providing fluid and keeping a high air humidity to prevent too great a loss from skin and respiratory evaporation.
Q4 What are the common diagnosis in NICU?
Ans : Common diagnosis and pathologies in the NICU include:
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)
Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)
Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN)
Q5 What is pediatrics ?
Ans: Paediatrics (or paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a paediatrician or paediatrician.
Q6 What is Neonatal asphyxia?
Ans Neonatal asphyxia is defined as the failure of an infant to cry or breathe well after delivery. Newborn infants normally start to breathe without assistance and often cry well. By 1 minute after delivery most infants are breathing well or crying. If an infant fails to establish adequate, sustained respiration after birth, the infant is said to have Neonatal asphyxia.
Q7 What is infant resuscitation?
Ans: resuscitationis a series of actions taken to establish normal breathing, heart rate, colour, tone and activity in an infant with depressed vital signs.
Q8 Which infants need resuscitation?
Ans : All infants who do not breathe well after delivery (i.e. infants with neonatal asphyxia ) or have a 1 minute Apgar score below 7 need immediate resuscitation .The lower the Apgar score the more urgent is the need for resuscitation. Any infant who stops breathing or has depressed vital signs at any time after delivery or in the nursery also requires resuscitation. Therefore, it is important to formally asses the clinical condition of all infants after delivery.
Q9 Do the procedures in the NICU hurt my baby?
Ans : Pain perception in infants is not fully understood. Some of the procedures may be painful; however, we try to minimize pain by gentle touch and soft patting. At times, pain medication is ordered. It is important to remember that crying is a normal response of a baby to its environment and is not always associated with pain.
Q10 What are the various types of Neonatal surgery procedures?
Ans : There are various types of neonatal surgery procedures that may need to be performed on newborns, and some of these include surgery for birth defects. This may include procedures on the limbs or chest. Emergency neonatal surgery may be needed on a newborn with complications that could jeopardize the baby's life. Heart surgery to correct abnormalities is another type of neonatal surgery that may be performed soon after birth.
Infants who are born premature often have complications or medical issues that may need to be corrected during the first several weeks of life. Often these babies with lower-than-normal birth weights may have underdeveloped organs or other issues. This is why neonatal surgery is more common in premature infants than full-term babies.
Neonatal surgery to correct intestinal disorders occurs in infants who are delivered full term and premature. Intestinal neonatal surgery may be performed to correct a blockage. This could be life-threatening to the infant if not surgically repaired as soon as possible. A bowel obstruction may cause sepsis and massive infection in a newborn and the infant may deteriorate rapidly if surgical intervention is not performed right away.
Lung malformation may need to be corrected through neonatal surgical procedures. Any abnormalities within the structure of the lungs may cause total collapse, resulting in respiratory failure. This type of surgery is typically performed in an emergency situation.