The knee is one of the largest joints in the body. It is composed of various components such as cartilage bones, tendons, and ligaments. Its complex nature makes it vulnerable to many injuries. Any element of the knee can be injured if not taken proper care.
Common Knee Injuries
The most common knee injuries include dislocations, sprains, fractures, and soft tissue tears. In most of the cases, the damage consists of more than one structure of the knee. The most common signs of knee injury are swelling and pain in the injured part.
Some of the knee injuries are listed below:
Dislocation: A dislocation is a condition in which bones of the knee gets displaced from its original place. It can happen either completely or partially. In a dislocation, more than one bone may slip from its site. Knee dislocation involves many reasons such as falls, accidents or sports-related injuries.
Fractures: It includes the breakage of bones in the knee. Patella is a type of bone which is most commonly broken around the knee. The fractures in the knee are caused by falls, high energy trauma and accidents involving motor vehicle collisions.
Meniscal Tears: There are two rubbery wedges of cartilage present between shinbone and thighbone that are known as menisci. The meniscal tears commonly happen during sports. Tears in the meniscus cause suddenly due to twisting, rotating or cutting. Meniscal tears may also occur due to aging or arthritis-related problems.
Tendon Tears: Tendons connect bones and muscles. They are present in the form of soft tissues that can be injured easily due to overstretching, tear, fall or a hit. Weakening of bones due to aging can also cause tendon tears.
Cruciate ligament injuries: The Cruciate ligaments include anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligaments. These ligaments provide stability to the knee joint. The injuries in these ligaments are considered one of the most dangerous injuries. They commonly occur in sports such as athletes.
Treatment may vary based on the cause of the knee injury. In cases of overuse injuries or strain, rest and ice packs are advised by the doctors to allow healing of knee to with time. Medication can also be prescribed for pain management an inflammation. Other treatment options include:
Physical therapy: It involves specific exercises to restore and strengthen the function of the knee
Surgical treatment: It requires surgery around the knee in cases of severe injury such as anterior cruciate ligament injury. The injuries induced by trauma may require plating and bracing.
- Sportsperson or athletes should wear protective gear and appropriate shoes. Over-exercise and overrunning should also be avoided
- Some exercises strengthen the bones and muscles. A person should perform, stretching before and after exercise to prevent knee
- Proper nutrition such as protein, calcium and vitamin D rich diet helps in the maintenance of healthy muscles, bones, and ligaments